Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery and acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Victor F Seabra, Sami Alobaidi, Ethan M Balk, Alan H Poon, Bertrand L Jaber
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 2010, 5 (10): 1734-44

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been advocated to cause less inflammation, morbidity, and mortality than the more traditional on-pump technique. This meta-analysis compares these two surgical techniques with respect to causing acute kidney injury (AKI).

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study searched for randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE and abstracts from the proceedings of scientific meetings through February 2010. Included were trials comparing off-pump to on-pump CABG that reported the incidence of AKI, as defined by a mixture of criteria including biochemical parameter/urine output/dialysis requirement. Mortality was evaluated among the studies that reported kidney-related outcomes. For primary and subgroup analyses, fixed-effect meta-analyses of odds ratios (OR) were performed.

RESULTS: In 22 identified trials (4819 patients), the weighted incidence of AKI in the on-pump CABG group was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8%, 8.5%), dialysis requirement 2.4% (95% CI 1.6%, 3.7%), and mortality 2.6% (95% CI 1.6%, 4.0%). By meta-analysis, off-pump CABG was associated with a 40% lower odds of postoperative AKI (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43, 0.84; P = 0.003) and a nonsignificant 33% lower odds for dialysis requirement (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.40, 1.12; P = 0.12). Within the selected trials, off-pump CABG was not associated with a significant decrease in mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Off-pump CABG may be associated with a lower incidence of postoperative AKI but may not affect dialysis requirement, a serious complication of cardiac surgery. However, the different definitions of AKI used in individual trials and methodological concerns preclude definitive conclusions.

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