Renal autoregulation and passive pressure-flow relationships in diabetes and hypertension

J V Hill, G Findon, R J Appelhoff, Z H Endre
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology 2010, 299 (4): F837-44
We investigated renal hemodynamics in isolated, perfused kidneys from rat models of diabetes and hypertension. Autoregulation and passive vascular responses were measured using stepped pressure ramps in the presence of angiotensin II (pEC50) or papaverine (0.1 mM), respectively. Male diabetic heterozygote m(Ren2)27 rats were compared with three male control groups: nondiabetic, normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats; nondiabetic, hypertensive heterozygote m(Ren2)27 rats; and diabetic, normotensive SD rats. Kidney function (proteinuria, creatinine clearance) was monitored before induction and at monthly intervals. Vascular function was measured in vitro in rats of induction age (6-8 wk) and at 2 and 4 mo postinduction. Renal flow correlated with age, but not diabetes or the Ren2 gene. Kidney weight-specific and body weight-specific renal flow differed between diabetic and nondiabetic rats because diabetic rats had higher kidney but lower body weights. Kidneys from all groups showed effective autoregulation in the presence of angiotensin II. The autoregulatory pressure threshold of m(Ren2)27 rats was higher, and the autoregulation pressure range was wider, compared with SD rats. When vascular smooth muscle activity was blocked with papaverine, pressure-flow responses differed between groups and with time. The m(Ren2)27 rat groups showed higher renal vascular resistance at lower pressures, suggesting greater vascular stiffness. In contrast, diabetic SD rat kidneys demonstrated reduced vessel stiffness. Flow was impaired in diabetic m(Ren2)27 rats at 4 mo, and this correlated with a decline in creatinine clearance. The results suggest that the characteristic late decline in renal filtration function in diabetes- and hypertension-related renal disease follows changes in renal vascular compliance.

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