Carriage of cytochrome 2C19 polymorphism is associated with risk of high post-treatment platelet reactivity on high maintenance-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg/day: results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by a Double Dose of Clopidogrel According to Gene Polymorphism) study

Young-Hoon Jeong, In-Suk Kim, Yongwhi Park, Min-Kyung Kang, Jin-Sin Koh, Seok-Jae Hwang, Choong Hwan Kwak, Jin-Yong Hwang
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2010, 3 (7): 731-41

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the impact of gene polymorphisms on platelet reactivity (PR) after clopidogrel 150 mg/day in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

BACKGROUND: Although high maintenance-dose (MD) clopidogrel reduces PR, it is unknown whether gene polymorphisms are related with the risk of high post-treatment PR (HPPR) after high-MD clopidogrel.

METHODS: We included mostly patients receiving high-MD clopidogrel after PCI from previously registered Gyeongsang National University Hospital data. A total of 126 PCI-treated patients receiving high-MD clopidogrel were enrolled. Platelet reactivity was assessed with conventional aggregometry and VerifyNow (Accumetrics Inc., San Diego, California) after receiving clopidogrel 150 mg/day for at least 1 month. CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 genotyping was performed. We defined HPPR as 5 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced maximal PR (PR(max)) >50%.

RESULTS: CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms did not influence PR. Carriers of CYP2C19 variant (*2 or *3) (n = 80) had significantly higher 5 and 20 micromol/l ADP-induced PR(max) than did noncarriers (n = 46) (40.7 +/- 16.8% vs. 30.3 +/- 12.6%, p < 0.001; 54.2 +/- 16.2% vs. 40.5 +/- 15.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). Late PR and VerifyNow results indicated consistently greater measures in carriers versus noncarriers of CYP2C19 variant. All platelet measures proportionally increased according to the number of CYP2C19 variant alleles. Twenty-seven (21.4%) patients met the criteria for HPPR. Prevalence of HPPR was 8.7%, 21.7%, and 50.0% in carriers of 0, 1, and 2 CYP2C19 variant alleles, respectively (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, carriage of CYP2C19 variant was a significant predictor of HPPR (odds ratio: 5.525, 95% confidence interval: 1.333 to 23.256, p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS: Among PCI-treated patients receiving high-MD clopidogrel, carriage of CYP2C19 variant relates to increased PR and predicts risk of HPPR. (Adjunctive Cilostazol Versus High Maintenance-dose ClopidogrEL in Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI] Patients According to CYP2C19 Polymorphism [ACCELAMI2C19]; NCT00915733; and Comparison of Platelet Inhibition With Adjunctive Cilostazol Versus High Maintenance-Dose Clopidogrel According to Hepatic Cytochrome 2C19 Allele (CYP2C19) Polymorphism [ACCEL2C19]; NCT00891670).

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