JOURNAL ARTICLE

Characterization of drug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by antibiograms, plasmids, integrons, resistance genes and PFGE

Douadi Benacer, Kwai-Lin Thong, Haruo Watanabe, Savithri Devi Puthucheary
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2010, 20 (6): 1042-52
20622506
Forty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium (33 zoonotic, 14 clinical) strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the standard disk diffusion method. Presence of relevant resistance genes and class 1 integrons were investigated by using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profiling were carried out to determine the genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium. Approximately 57.4% of S. Typhimurium were multidrug resistant (MDR) and showed high resistance rates to tetracycline (70.2%), sulphonamides (57.4%), streptomycin (53.1%), ampicillin (29.7%), nalidixic acid (27.6%), kanamycin (23.4%), chloramphenicol (21.2%) and trimethoprim (19.1%). Resistance towards cephalosporins was noted for cephalothin (27.6%), cephradine (21.2%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (17.0%) and cephalexin (17.0%). Resistance genes, blaTEM, strA, aadA, sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C) were detected among the drug resistant strains. Thirty-three strains (70.2%) carried class 1 integrons, which were grouped in 9 different profiles. DNA sequencing identified sat, aadA, pse-1 and dfrA genes in variable regions on class 1 integrons. Thirty-five strains (74.4%) were subtyped to 22 different plasmid profiles, each with 1 - 6 plasmids (2.0 to 95 kb). PFGE subtyped the 47 strains into 39 profiles. In conclusion, high rates of multidrug-resistance were found among the Malaysian Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium to cephalosporin antibiotics was also observed. The strains were very diverse and no persistent clone was observed. The emergence of MDR Salmonella Typhimurium is a worldwide problem and this report provides information for the better understanding of the prevalence and epidemiology of MDR S. Typhimurium in Malaysia.

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