Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and therapy

Takuji Suzuki, Takuro Sakagami, Lisa R Young, Brenna C Carey, Robert E Wood, Maurizio Luisetti, Susan E Wert, Bruce K Rubin, Katharine Kevill, Claudia Chalk, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Carrie Stevens, Lawrence M Nogee, Ilaria Campo, Bruce C Trapnell
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010 November 15, 182 (10): 1292-304

RATIONALE: We identified a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), impaired granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor function, and increased GM-CSF.

OBJECTIVES: Increased serum GM-CSF may be useful to identify individuals with PAP caused by GM-CSF receptor dysfunction.

METHODS: We screened 187 patients referred to us for measurement of GM-CSF autoantibodies to diagnose autoimmune PAP. Five were children with PAP and increased serum GM-CSF but without GM-CSF autoantibodies or any disease causing secondary PAP; all were studied with family members, subsequently identified patients, and controls.

MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Eight children (seven female, one male) were identified with PAP caused by recessive CSF2RA mutations. Six presented with progressive dyspnea of insidious onset at 4.8 ± 1.6 years and two were asymptomatic at ages 5 and 8 years. Radiologic and histopathologic manifestations were similar to those of autoimmune PAP. Molecular analysis demonstrated that GM-CSF signaling was absent in six and severely reduced in two patients. The GM-CSF receptor β chain was detected in all patients, whereas the α chain was absent in six and abnormal in two, paralleling the GM-CSF signaling defects. Genetic analysis revealed multiple distinct CSF2RA abnormalities, including missense, duplication, frameshift, and nonsense mutations; exon and gene deletion; and cryptic alternative splicing. All symptomatic patients responded well to whole-lung lavage therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: CSF2RA mutations cause a genetic form of PAP presenting as insidious, progressive dyspnea in children that can be diagnosed by a combination of characteristic radiologic findings and blood tests and treated successfully by whole-lung lavage.

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