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Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection.

Nephrology 2010 June
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in the USA. In this study, we sought to determine the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CDAD.

METHODS: A case-control study was designed to determine the association between CKD and CDAD in an urban hospital. Over a 2-year period, all patients diagnosed with CDAD (n = 188) were included as cases and the prevalence of CKD was calculated. Age- and sex-matched patients without CDAD were considered as controls with a ratio of 2:1 controls to cases. The prevalence of different stages of advanced CKD (stages 3-5) was determined and compared between groups. Also the calculated odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for multiple possible confounding variables using logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in prevalence of advanced CKD between cases and controls (OR = 1.38, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.90-2.12, P = 0.1365). The association between CKD and CDAD remained insignificant in subjects with CKD stages 3-5 who were not on dialysis (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.65-1.77), P = 0.7970). However, the group with end-stage renal disease on dialysis showed a significant association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.25-5.41, P = 0.0165). Controlling for antibiotics as a possible confounding variable, yielded an OR that was not statistically significant (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 0.94-4.47, P = 0.07), but still showing a trend towards increased risk.

CONCLUSION: End-stage renal disease may increase the risk of acquiring CDAD through unknown mechanisms. This suggests implementing better surveillance strategies for these patients and eliminating the known risk factors for CDAD.

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