Allyl isothiocyanate triggers G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway

Nian-Gu Chen, Kuan-Tin Chen, Chi-Cheng Lu, Yu-Hsuan Lan, Cheng-Hung Lai, Yang-Tsung Chung, Jai-Sing Yang, Yung-Chang Lin
Oncology Reports 2010, 24 (2): 449-55
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are present as glucosinolates in various cruciferous vegetables. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is one of the common naturally occurring isothiocyanates. Recent studies have shown that AITC significantly inhibited survival of leukemia HL-60, bladder cancer UM-UC-3 and colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that AITC significantly decreased proliferation and viability of human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 9.25+/-0.69 microM for 24 h-treatment. The analysis of cell cycle distribution also showed that AITC induced significantly G2/M arrest and sub-G1 phase (apoptotic population) in GBM 8401 cells. AITC markedly reduced the CDK1/cyclin B activity and protein levels by CDK1 activity assay and Western blot analysis. AITC-induced apoptotic cell death and this evidence was confirmed by morphological assessment and DAPI staining. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of caspase-3 (Z-DEVE-FMK) and -9 (Z-LEHD-FMK) significantly reduced caspase-3 and -9 activity in GBM 8401 cells. Western blot analysis and colorimetric assays also displayed that AITC caused a time-dependent increase in cytosolic cytochrome c, pro-caspase-9, Apaf-1, AIF, Endo G and the stimulated caspase-9 and -3 activity. Our results suggest that AITC is a potent anti-human brain malignant glioma drug and it shows a remarkable action on cell cycle arrest before commitment for apoptosis is reached.

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