A systematic review of the effect of the distension medium on pain during outpatient hysteroscopy

Natalie A M Cooper, Paul Smith, Khalid S Khan, T Justin Clark
Fertility and Sterility 2011, 95 (1): 264-71

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of distension medium on pain during outpatient hysteroscopy.

DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

SETTING: Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics.

PATIENT(S): Women undergoing outpatient hysteroscopic examination.

INTERVENTION(S): Use of normal saline versus carbon dioxide as distension medium for outpatient hysteroscopy.


RESULT(S): There was no statistically significant difference in pain scores when carbon dioxide or normal saline were used as the distension medium for outpatient hysteroscopy (standardized mean differences=-0.05; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.07; I2=92%).

CONCLUSION(S): Carbon dioxide and normal saline are both suitable distending media for outpatient hysteroscopy as the procedural pain is comparable and the views obtained are satisfactory. However, normal saline does confer advantages that may make it more suitable for clinical use.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.