Central role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Toll-like receptor 4 in IL-10 production in regulatory dendritic cells induced by Trypanosoma cruzi

Carolina V Poncini, Guadalupe Giménez, Carolina A Pontillo, Catalina D Alba-Soto, Elvira L D de Isola, Isabel Piazzón, Stella M González Cappa
Molecular Immunology 2010, 47 (11): 1981-8
Several Trypanosoma cruzi molecules that stimulate macrophages activity were described as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands. Besides, the models of dendritic cells (DC) are poorly characterised. We have previously demonstrated that live-trypomastigotes (Tp) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce DC with tolerogenic properties that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and an impaired capacity to induce lymphoproliferation. Here, we show that the regulatory phenotype was observed with heat-killed trypomastigotes (Tphk) stimulation, ruling out DC infection. T. cruzi induced a particular DC activation state increasing LPS-activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Inhibition of ERK down-regulated IL-10 production and restored DC stimulatory capacity, showing the importance of this pathway in the DC modulation. A recent work shows that signalling via TLR4 and TLR2 induces a synergism in anti-inflammatory cytokine production in murine DC. Upon TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation using Pam(3)Cys or LPS and Tphk in DC from TLR2 knock out (KO) or TLR4-mutant mice, we showed that high levels of IL-10 were independent of TLR2 but associated with TLR4 and NF-kappaB signallization. Although sialic acid has been described as a molecule responsible of DC inhibition, we determine that it is not associated with T. cruzi-IL-10 modulatory response. In conclusion, all these findings demonstrate a key role of ERK and TLR4 in association with NF-kappaB in IL-10 modulation induced by T. cruzi and suggest that this regulatory effect involves parasite-DC interactions not described yet.

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