JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Complexity of non-iatrogenic ureteral injuries in children: single-center experience.

PURPOSE: Non-iatrogenic ureteral injuries in children are rare. Only sparse literature reports are available regarding management and outcome. We reviewed our experience in diagnosis and treatment of complex non-iatrogenic ureteral injuries in children.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2000 to 2010, children who were treated for non-iatrogenic ureteral injuries were reviewed. Patients' characteristics, mechanism of trauma, affected ureteral segment, time of recognition, associated injuries, presentation, mode of treatment and postoperative complications were studied from the medical records of those patients.

RESULTS: Five children (four boys and one girl) with a median age of 10 (range 2-15) were treated at our center. Blunt abdominal trauma was documented in three children, while in another two penetrating trauma was inflicted. Associated hepatic tear was noted in one child and bowel injury in another. The affected segment was UPJ in three and mid-ureter in two. All cases presented with Urinoma. Diagnosis was confirmed after fixation of percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade pyelography in four children, while reterograde pyelography was done in the remaining child. Surgical interventions included uretero-calyceal anastomosis in two, while nephrectomy was necessitated in another two with poor kidney function. In the child to whom retrograde pyelography was done, a double J stent was fixed for 3 months and the patient did well.

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric non-iatrogenic ureteral injuries are rare. A raised index for suspicion should be considered intra-operatively during initial exploration. Missed injuries are more common and may end in dense scarring and up to nephrectomy.

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