Mild traumatic brain injury and executive functions in school-aged children

Anne Maillard-Wermelinger, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Jerome Rusin, Barbara Bangert, Ann Dietrich, Kathryn Nuss, Martha Wright
Developmental Neurorehabilitation 2009, 12 (5): 330-41

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the effects of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on executive functions in school-aged children.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHOD: The prospective, longitudinal study involved 8-15 year old children, 186 with mild TBI and 99 with mild orthopaedic injuries (OI). They were administered the Stockings of Cambridge and Spatial Working Memory sub-tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) approximately 10 days, 3 months and 12 months post-injury. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) on each occasion, with ratings at the initial assessment intended to assess pre-morbid functioning retrospectively.

RESULTS: On the CANTAB, the groups did not differ on the Stockings of Cambridge and the mild TBI group unexpectedly performed better than the OI group on Spatial Working Memory. On the BRIEF, children with mild TBI showed a marginally significant trend toward more problems than the OI group on the Metacognition Index composite. The only BRIEF sub-scale on which they demonstrated significantly more problems was Organization of Materials. The presence of intracranial abnormalities on MRI was associated with more problems on the BRIEF Organization of Materials sub-scale at 3 months, but other findings were not consistent with hypothesized effects of TBI severity. The CANTAB sub-tests were significant predictors of later ratings on the BRIEF, but accounted for modest variance.

DISCUSSION: Children with mild TBI show limited evidence of deficits in executive functions, either cognitively or behaviourally, irrespective of injury characteristics. Cognitive tests of executive functions are modest predictors of ratings of executive functions in everyday life, for children both with and without mild TBI.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"