JOURNAL ARTICLE

Effects of birth trauma and estrogen on urethral elastic fibers and elastin expression

Guiting Lin, Hongxiu Ning, Guifang Wang, Lia Banie, Tom F Lue, Ching-Shwun Lin
Urology 2010, 76 (4): 1018.e8-13
20472273

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of birth trauma and estrogen on urethral elastic fibers and elastin expression.

METHODS: Pregnant rats were subjected to sham operation (Delivery-only), DVDO (delivery, vaginal distension and ovariectomy), or DVDO + E₂ (estrogen). At 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks, their urethras were harvested for elastic fiber staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Urethral cells were treated with transforming growth factor- β1 (TGFβ1) and/or estrogen and analyzed for elastin mRNA expression. Urethral cells were also examined for the activities of Smad1- and Smad3/4-responsive elements in response to TGFβ1 and estrogen.

RESULTS: At 8 weeks post-treatment, the urethras of DVDO rats had fewer and shorter elastic fibers when compared with Delivery-only rats, and those of DVDO + E₂ rats had fewer and shorter elastic fibers when compared with DVDO rats. Elastin mRNA was expressed at low levels in Delivery-only rats and at increasingly higher levels in DVDO rats at 2, 4, and 8 weeks but at sharply lower levels in DVDO + E₂ rats when compared with DVDO rats at 8 weeks. Urethral cells expressed increasingly higher levels of elastin mRNA in response to increasing concentrations of TGFβ1 up to 1 ng/mL. At this TGFβ1 concentration, urethral cells expressed significantly lower levels of elastin mRNA when treated with estrogen before or after TGFβ1 treatment. Both Smad1- and Smad3/4-responsive elements were activated by TGFβ1 and such activation was suppressed by estrogen.

CONCLUSIONS: Birth trauma appears to activate urethral elastin expression via TGFβ1 signaling. Estrogen interferes with this signaling, resulting in improper assembly of elastic fibers.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
20472273
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"