Apnea-hypopnea indices and snoring in children diagnosed with ADHD: a matched case-control study

Barbara C Galland, E Gail Tripp, Andrew Gray, Barry J Taylor
Sleep & Breathing 2011, 15 (3): 455-62

OBJECTIVES: To measure apnea-hypopnea indices and snoring in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a case-control design. Additionally, the study design allowed us to investigate whether or not methylphenidate had any effect on breathing variables.

METHODS: Twenty-eight children (22 boys) aged 6-12 years meeting diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV ADHD were studied together with matched controls. Two nights of polysomnography (PSG) were conducted that included recordings of snoring waveforms. A randomly assigned 48-h on-off medication protocol was used for ADHD children. Control children's recordings were matched for PSG night, but medication was not used. A low apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) threshold of >1 event per hour was used to define sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) because of a clinical relevance in ADHD.

RESULTS: Categorical analyses for paired binary data showed no significant differences between control and ADHD children for presence of an AHI >1 or snoring. Variables were extracted from a significantly shorter total sleep time (67 min) on the medication night in children with ADHD. Eight (28%) control and 11 (40%) ADHD children snored >60 dB some time during the night. Methylphenidate had no effect on central apneas, AHI, desaturation events, or any snoring data.

CONCLUSIONS: Our PSG findings show no strong link between ADHD and SDB although our findings could be limited by a small sample size. Findings from PSG studies in the literature argue both for and against an association between ADHD and SDB. Our results suggest medication is not a factor in the debate.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"