JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Urine abnormalities in acute kidney injury and sepsis.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of critical illness. While the etiology of AKI in critically ill patients is likely often multifactorial, sepsis has consistently been found an important contributing factor and has been associated with high attributable morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the timely identification of septic AKI in critically ill patients is clearly a clinical priority. The diagnosis of AKI has traditionally depended upon biochemical measurements such as serum creatinine, urea, and urine output. In addition, several urinary biochemical tests, derived indices and microscopy have also been widely cited as valuable in the diagnosis and classification of AKI. However, the value of these urinary tests in the diagnosis, classification, prognosis and clinical management in septic AKI remains unclear, due in part to a lack of kidney morphologic changes and histopathology in human studies of septic AKI. This review will summarize the urinary biochemistry and microscopy in septic AKI.

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