Cardiorenal syndromes: an executive summary from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI)

Claudio Ronco, Peter A McCullough, Stefan D Anker, Inder Anand, Nadia Aspromonte, Sean M Bagshaw, Rinaldo Bellomo, Tomas Berl, Ilona Bobek, Dinna N Cruz, Luciano Daliento, Andrew Davenport, Mikko Haapio, Hans Hillege, Andrew House, Nevin M Katz, Alan Maisel, Sunil Mankad, Pierluigi Zanco, Alexandre Mebazaa, Alberto Palazzuoli, Federico Ronco, Andrew Shaw, Geoff Sheinfeld, Sachin Soni, Giorgio Vescovo, Nereo Zamperetti, Piotr Ponikowski
Contributions to Nephrology 2010, 165: 54-67
The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The general definition has been expanded into five subtypes reflecting the primacy of organ dysfunction and the time-frame of the syndrome: CRS type 1 = acute worsening of heart function leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction; CRS type 2 = chronic abnormalities in heart function leading to kidney injury or dysfunction; CRS type 3 = acute worsening of kidney function leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction; CRS type 4 = chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease and/or dysfunction, and CRS type 5 = systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the combined dysfunction of heart and kidney in these five types of the syndrome.

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