Spherical carbon adsorbent (AST-120) protects deterioration of renal function in chronic kidney disease rats through inhibition of reactive oxygen species production from mitochondria and reduction of serum lipid peroxidation

Shigeru Owada, Teruhiko Maeba, Yasuji Sugano, Aki Hirayama, Atsushi Ueda, Sohji Nagase, Sumie Goto, Fuyuhiko Nishijima, Kenji Bannai, Hideyuki Yamato
Nephron. Experimental Nephrology 2010, 115 (4): e101-11

BACKGROUND/AIM: An imbalance in renal redox status contributes to progression of renal dysfunction. We investigated the effects of an oral charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) on renal redox status, superoxide production from renal mitochondria, and serum lipid peroxidation using chronic kidney disease (CKD) model rats.

METHODS: CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. CKD rats were divided into 2 groups: controls, and those treated with AST-120 for 20 weeks. We evaluated: (1) renal redox status by in vivo low-frequency electron spin resonance imaging (EPRI); (2) renal superoxide scavenging activity (SSA); (3) superoxide production from renal mitochondria; (4) immunostaining for Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and (5) oxidative stress markers including LDL-negative charge (LDL-CMF), serum lipid peroxide (LPO) and urinary hexanoyl-lysine (HEL). The effect of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, on mitochondrial superoxide production was also investigated.

RESULTS: AST-120 treatment improved renal function, renal SSA, renal mitochondrial superoxide production, renal SOD expression, renal redox status by EPRI, and oxidative stress profiles by LDL-CMF, LPO and urinary HEL. Addition of indoxyl sulfate increased mitochondrial superoxide production and AST-120 also decreased this.

CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in the redox status and lipid peroxidation induced by AST-120 may delay the progression of CKD.

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