HIV-1 resistance patterns to integrase inhibitors in antiretroviral-experienced patients with virological failure on raltegravir-containing regimens

Daniel da Silva, Liesbeth Van Wesenbeeck, Dominique Breilh, Sandrine Reigadas, Guerric Anies, Kurt Van Baelen, Philippe Morlat, Didier Neau, Michel Dupon, Linda Wittkop, Hervé Fleury, Bernard Masquelier
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2010, 65 (6): 1262-9

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to study the in vivo viral genetic pathways for resistance to raltegravir, in antiretroviral-experienced patients with virological failure (VF) on raltegravir-containing regimens.

METHODS: We set up a prospective study including antiretroviral-experienced patients receiving raltegravir-based regimens. Integrase (IN) genotypic resistance analysis was performed at baseline. IN was also sequenced at follow-up points in the case of VF, i.e. plasma HIV-1 RNA>400 copies/mL at month 3 and/or >50 copies/mL at month 6. For phenotyping, the IN region was recombined with an IN-deleted HXB2-based HIV-1 backbone. A titrated amount of IN recombinant viruses was used for antiviral testing against raltegravir and elvitegravir.

RESULTS: Among 51 patients, 11 (21.6%) had VF. Four different patterns of IN mutations were observed: (i) emergence of Q148H/R with secondary mutations (n=5 patients); (ii) emergence of N155H, then replaced by a pattern including Y143C/H/R (n=3); (iii) selection of S230N (n=1); and (iv) no evidence of selection of IN mutations (n=2). The median raltegravir and elvitegravir fold changes (FCs) were 244 (154-647) and 793 (339-892), respectively, for the Q148H/R pattern, while the median raltegravir and elvitegravir FCs were 21 (6-52) and 3 (2-3), respectively, with Y143C/H/R. The median plasma raltegravir Cmin was lower in patients with selection of the N155H mutation followed by Y143C/H/R compared with patients with Q148H/R and with patients without emerging mutations or without VF.

CONCLUSIONS: Diverse genetic profiles can be associated with VF on raltegravir-containing regimens, including the dynamics of replacement of mutational profiles. Pharmacokinetic parameters could be involved in this genetic evolution.

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