Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume induces inflammation in patients without lung disease

Roselaine Pinheiro de Oliveira, Marcio Pereira Hetzel, Mauro dos Anjos Silva, Daniele Dallegrave, Gilberto Friedman
Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum 2010, 14 (2): R39

INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation (MV) with high tidal volumes may induce or aggravate lung injury in critical ill patients. We compared the effects of a protective versus a conventional ventilatory strategy, on systemic and lung production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients without lung disease.

METHODS: Patients without lung disease and submitted to mechanical ventilation admitted to one trauma and one general adult intensive care unit of two different university hospitals were enrolled in a prospective randomized-control study. Patients were randomized to receive MV either with tidal volume (VT) of 10 to 12 ml/kg predicted body weight (high VT group) (n = 10) or with VT of 5 to 7 ml/kg predicted body weight (low VT group) (n = 10) with an oxygen inspiratory fraction (FIO2) enough to keep arterial oxygen saturation >90% with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O during 12 hours after admission to the study. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations were measured in the serum and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at admission and after 12 hours of study observation time.

RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled and analyzed. At admission or after 12 hours there were no differences in serum TNF-alpha and IL-8 between the two groups. While initial analysis did not reveal significant differences, standardization against urea of logarithmic transformed data revealed that TNF-alpha and IL-8 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were stable in the low VT group but increased in the high VT group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03). After 12 hours, BALF TNF-alpha (P = 0.03) and BALF IL-8 concentrations (P = 0.03) were higher in the high VT group than in the low VT group.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of lower tidal volumes may limit pulmonary inflammation in mechanically ventilated patients even without lung injury.


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