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Alkaptonuria.

Alkaptonuria is a hereditary disease resulted from accumulation of homogentisic acid within the body due to deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase. The main clinical feature is dark brown color of urine caused by high urinary output of homogentisic acid. There are no other symptoms or signs of the disease until the fourth decade of life when ochronosis is developed. Life-long accumulation of abnormal metabolites becomes overt in form of severe spondylosis, peripheral arthropathy, tendon rupture, bone osteoporosis as well as aortic valve stenosis and skin pigmentation. The features of the disease are associated with affinity of homogentisic acid to the connective tissue and its effect on collagen structure. Only symptomatic treatment is applied in case of alkaptonuria and ochronosis.

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