Mapping and validation of simple sequence repeat markers linked to a major gene controlling seed cadmium accumulation in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]

Souframanien Jegadeesan, Kangfu Yu, Vaino Poysa, Eugene Gawalko, Malcolm J Morrison, Chun Shi, Elroy Cober
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik 2010, 121 (2): 283-94
Daily consumption of cadmium (Cd) contaminated foods poses a risk to human health. Cultivar selection is an important method to limit Cd uptake and accumulation; however, analyzing grain Cd concentration is costly and time-consuming. Developing markers for low Cd accumulation will facilitate marker assisted selection (MAS). Inheritance studies using a threshold value of 0.2 mg kg(-1) for low and high and an F(2:3) population showed that low Cd accumulation in soybean seed is under the control of a major gene (Cda1, proposed name) with the allele for low accumulation being dominant. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (F(6:8)) derived from the cross AC Hime (high Cd accumulation) and Westag-97 (low Cd accumulation) was used to identify the DNA markers linked to Cda gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling low Cd accumulation. We screened 171 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers that showed polymorphism between parents on the 166 RILs. Of these, 40 primers were newly developed from the soybean genomic DNA sequence. Seven SSR markers, SatK138, SatK139, SatK140 (0.5 cM), SatK147, SacK149, SaatK150 and SattK152 (0.3 cM), were linked to Cda1 in soybean seed. All the linked markers were mapped to the same linkage group (LG) K. The closest flanking SSR markers linked to Cda1 were validated using a parallel population (RILs) involving Leo x Westag-97. Linked markers were also validated with diverse soybean genotypes differing in their seed Cd concentration and showed that SSR markers SatK147, SacK149, and SattK152 clearly differentiated the high and low Cd accumulating genotypes tested. To treat Cd uptake as a quantitative trait, QTL analysis using a linkage map constructed with 161 markers identified a major QTL associated with low Cd concentration in the seeds. The QTL was also mapped to the same location as Cda1 on LG-K. This QTL accounted for 57.3% of the phenotypic variation. Potential candidate genes (genes with known or predicted function that could influence the seed Cd concentration) like protein kinase, putative Adagio-like protein, and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase were found to be located in the locus of interest. Of the four SSR markers located in the region, SattK152 was localized in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene. SSR markers closely linked to Cda1 in seeds of soybean were identified and have potential to be used for MAS to develop low Cd accumulating cultivars in a breeding program.

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