JOURNAL ARTICLE

Effects of manganese-excess on CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, carbohydrates and photosynthetic electron transport of leaves, and antioxidant systems of leaves and roots in Citrus grandis seedlings

Qing Li, Li-Song Chen, Huan-Xin Jiang, Ning Tang, Lin-Tong Yang, Zheng-He Lin, Yan Li, Gang-Hua Yang
BMC Plant Biology 2010, 10: 42
20205939

BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the effects of manganese (Mn)-excess on citrus photosynthesis and antioxidant systems. Seedlings of sour pummelo (Citrus grandis) were irrigated for 17 weeks with nutrient solution containing 2 microM (control) or 500 microM (excess) MnSO4. The objective of this study were to understand the mechanisms by which Mn-excess leads to a decrease in CO2 assimilation and to test the hypothesis that Mn-induced changes in antioxidant systems differ between roots and leaves.

RESULTS: Mn-excess decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, increased intercellular CO2 concentration, but did not affect chlorophyll (Chl) level. Both initial and total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in Mn-excess leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Contents of glucose, fructose, starch and total nonstructural carbohydrates did not differ between Mn-excess leaves and controls, while sucrose content was higher in the former. Chl a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from Mn-excess leaves showed increased O-step and decreased P-step, accompanied by positive L- and K-bands. Mn-excess decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and total performance index (PItot,abs), but increased relative variable fluorescence at I-steps (VI) and energy dissipation. On a protein basis, Mn-excess leaves displayed higher activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and contents of antioxidants, similar ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and lower dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activities; while Mn-excess roots had similar or lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants. Mn-excess did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of roots and leaves.

CONCLUSIONS: Mn-excess impaired the whole photosynthetic electron transport chain from the donor side of photosystem II (PSII) up to the reduction of end acceptors of photosystem I (PSI), thus limiting the production of reducing equivalents, and hence the rate of CO2 assimilation. Both the energy dissipation and the antioxidant systems were enhanced in Mn-excess leaves, while the antioxidant systems in Mn-excess roots were not up-regulated, but still remained high activity. The antioxidant systems in Mn-excess roots and leaves provided sufficient protection to them against oxidative damage.

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