Mini-laparotomy implantation of peritoneal dialysis catheters: outcome and rescue

Po-Jen Yang, Chih-Yuan Lee, Chi-Chuan Yeh, Hsiao-Ching Nien, Tun-Jun Tsai, Meng-Kung Tsai
Peritoneal Dialysis International 2010, 30 (5): 513-8

BACKGROUND: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is one of the main treatments for end-stage renal disease. To correct mechanical outflow obstruction after open surgical methods of catheter insertion, laparoscopic techniques are widely employed. ♢

METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2006, 228 open Tenckhoff catheter implantations were carried out by mini-laparotomy in 218 patients at our medical center. The procedures were all performed by an experienced surgeon, and the postoperative care, patient education, and long-term follow-up were all conducted by the same peritoneal dialysis team. ♢

RESULTS: Infection of the exit site or tunnel was the most common complication (27/228, 11.8%), followed by peritonitis (18/228, 7.9%) and refractory mechanical catheter obstruction (9/228, 3.9%). The main causes of catheter removal were successful renal transplantation (21/228, 9.2%), peritonitis (18/228, 7.9%), and infection of the exit site or tunnel (7/228, 3.1%). In the 9 cases of refractory mechanical catheter obstruction, laparoscopic surgery was performed to identify the pathology and to rescue the catheter at the same time. Omental wrapping was the major cause (8/9) of catheter obstruction, with blood clot in the lumen and tube migration occurring in the remaining case (1/9). Partial omentectomy was performed in 5 patients to prevent recurrent obstruction. Neither technique failure nor operation-related complications were noted in our laparoscopic rescue group. For 20 of the 25 patients with refractory infection of the exit site or tunnel, the salvage technique of partial re-plantation was performed, with an 85% (17/20) technique survival rate. ♢

CONCLUSIONS: With an experienced surgeon and a good postoperative care team, open paramedian placement is a simple, safe, and effective method for Tenckhoff catheter insertion, with a low complication rate. Laparoscopic surgery is effective as rescue for mechanical obstruction, and partial re-plantation is effective as salvage for exit-site or tunnel infection.

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