Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Repeat dosing of albuterol via metered-dose inhaler in infants with acute obstructive airway disease: a randomized controlled safety trial.

BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction and bronchial hyperactivity often times lead to emergency department visits in infants. Inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist bronchodilators have traditionally been dispensed to young children via nebulizers in the emergency department. Delivery of bronchodilators via metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) in conjunction with holding chambers (spacers) has been shown to be effective.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: : Safety and efficacy evaluations of albuterol sulfate hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalation aerosol in children younger than 2 years with acute wheezing caused by obstructive airway disease.

METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study of albuterol HFA 180 microg (n = 43) or 360 microg (n = 44) via an MDI with a valved holding chamber and face mask in an urgent-care setting. Assessments included adverse events, signs of adrenergic stimulation, electrocardiograms, and blood glucose and potassium levels. Efficacy parameters included additional albuterol use and Modified Tal Asthma Symptoms Score ([MTASS] reduction in MTASS representing improvement).

RESULTS: Overall, adverse events occurred in 4 (9%) and 3 (7%) subjects in the 180-microg and 360-microg groups, respectively. Drug-related tachycardia (360 microg) and ventricular extrasystoles (180 microg) were reported in 1 patient each. Three additional instances of single ventricular ectopy were identified from Holter monitoring. No hypokalemia or drug-related QT or QTc prolongation was seen; glucose values and adrenergic stimulation did not significantly differ between treatment groups. In the 180-microg and 360-microg groups, mean change from baseline in MTASS during the treatment period was -2.8 (-49.8%) and -2.9 (-48.4%), and rescue albuterol use occurred in 4 (9%) and 3 (7%) subjects, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative dosing with albuterol HFA 180 microg or 360 microg via MDI-spacer and face mask in children younger than 2 years did not result in any significant safety issues and improved MTASS by at least 48%.

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