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Patterns of morbidity and mortality in typhoid fever dependent on age and gender: review of 552 hospitalized patients with diarrhea.

Features of typhoid fever were correlated with age and gender through a review of the charts of 552 hospitalized culture-positive patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh. Seizures occurred more frequently in children from birth through 10 years of age (5%-11%) and pneumonia more frequently in children from birth through 5 years of age (8%-15%) than in older age groups (P less than .05), whereas intestinal perforation occurred more frequently in patients greater than or equal to 11 years of age (5%-25%) than in younger age groups (P less than .005). Compared with older age groups, children from birth through 10 years of age were more anemic, those from birth through 5 years of age had a higher mean white blood cell count, and those from birth through 1 year of age had a lower mean blood carbon dioxide content (all P less than .05). Female patients were more severely anemic than male patients (P less than .05). The case-fatality rate was 4.3% overall, with the highest rates for children from birth through 1 year of age (11%) and adults greater than or equal to 31 years of age (10%). Female patients had a higher case-fatality rate (6%) than male patients (3%), although the difference was not significant (P greater than .05). Death was independently associated with seizures, intestinal perforation, pneumonia, and delirium or coma. These results indicated that the patients with typhoid fever who were at highest risk of complications and death were children from birth through 1 year of age and adults greater than or equal to 31 years of age.

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