JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Study of growth factors and receptors in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare malignant salivary gland tumor derived from a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. It is a good model to study the evolution of carcinogenesis, starting with in situ areas to frankly invasive carcinoma. Growth factors are associated with several biological and neoplastic processes by transmembrane receptors. In order to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of some growth factors and its receptors [EGF receptor, fibroblast growth factor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, hepatocyte growth factor, c-Met, transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, TGFbetaR-II and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1] in the progression of CXPA, we have used ten cases of CXPA in several degrees of invasion- intracapsular, minimally and frankly invasive carcinoma- with only epithelial component. Slides were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively evaluated according to the percentage of stained tumor cells from 0 to 3 (0 = less than 10%; 1 = 10-25%; 2 = 25-50%; 3 = more than 50% of cells). Malignant epithelial cells starting with in situ areas showed stronger expression than luminal cells of pleomorphic adenoma for all antibodies. Most of the intracapsular, minimally and frankly invasive CXPA presented score 3. However, score 2 was more evident in the frankly invasive one. In small nests of invasive carcinoma, negative cells were observed probably indicating that the proliferative process is replaced by the invasive mechanism. Altogether this data infers that these factors may contribute to cell proliferation during initial phases of the tumor.

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