Gallbladder cancer (GBC) represents the most common and aggressive type among the biliary tree cancers (BTCs). Complete surgical resection offers the only chance for cure; however, only 10% of patients with GBC present with early-stage disease and are considered surgical candidates. Among those patients who do undergo "curative" resection, recurrence rates are high. There are no established adjuvant treatments in this setting. Patients with unresectable or metastatic GBC have a poor prognosis. There has been a paucity of randomized phase III data in this field. A recent report demonstrated longer overall survival with gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin than with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced or metastatic BTCs. Molecularly targeted agents are under development. In this review, we attempt to discuss the current status and key issues involved in the management of GBC.
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