JOURNAL ARTICLE

Establishment and characterization of a new hypoxia-resistant cancer cell line, OCUM-12/Hypo, derived from a scirrhous gastric carcinoma

Y Kato, M Yashiro, S Noda, M Tendo, S Kashiwagi, Y Doi, T Nishii, J Matsuoka, Y Fuyuhiro, O Shinto, T Sawada, M Ohira, K Hirakawa
British Journal of Cancer 2010 March 2, 102 (5): 898-907
20145613

BACKGROUND: Many kinds of solid tumour have heterogeneously a hypoxic environment. Tumour hypoxia reported to be associated with more aggressive tumour phenotypes such as high metastatic ability and resistance to various anti-cancer therapies which may lead to a poorer prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia affects the aggressive phenotypes remain unclear.

METHODS: We established a scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line (OCUM-12) from ascites associated with scirrhous gastric carcinoma, and a hypoxia-resistant cancer cell line (OCUM-12/Hypo) was cloned from OCUM-12 cells by continuous exposure to 1% oxygen.

RESULTS: Histologic findings from orthotopic tumours derived from parent OCUM-12 cells and daughter OCUM-12/Hypo cells revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with extensive fibrosis that resembled human scirrhous gastric cancer. Necrotic lesions were frequently detected in the OCUM-12 tumours but were rarely found in the OCUM-12/Hypo tumours, although both types had multiple hypoxic loci. Apoptosis rate of OCUM-12 cells was increased to 24.7% at 1% O(2), whereas that of OCUM-12/Hypo was 5.6%. The OCUM-12/Hypo orthotopic models developed multiple metastases to the peritoneum and lymph nodes, but the OCUM-12 models did not. OCUM-12/Hypo cells showed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and high migratory and invasive activities in comparison with OCUM-12 cells. The mRNA expression levels of both E-cadherin and zonula occludens ZO-1 and ZO-2 decreased in OCUM-12/Hypo cells, and that of vimentin, Snail-1, Slug/Snail-2, Twist, ZEB-1, ZEB-2, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and MMP-2 were increased in OCUM-12/Hypo cells.

CONCLUSION: OCUM-12 and OCUM-12/Hypo may be useful for the elucidation of disease progression associated with scirrhous gastric cancer in the setting of chronic hypoxia.

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