RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
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Long-term outcomes with ambrisentan monotherapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) undergoing treatment with ambrisentan monotherapy, a selective oral endothelin-1 receptor antagonist.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who participated in the Ambrisentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Efficacy Study (ARIES-1) clinical trial and extension phase at our institution were included. Cardiac catheterization, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) data were retrospectively reviewed. Twelve patients with PAH (11 idiopathic, 1 fenfluramine) had follow-up from 3 to 5.5 years from the initiation of ARIES-1. Patients received ambrisentan therapy throughout the study period and were on ambrisentan monotherapy for the first 2 years. At year 1, improvements in median mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PA), cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were seen (P = .02, P = .03, P < .01), and the improvement in PVR persisted at 2 years. 6MWD also improved significantly between baseline (350 m) and 1 and 2 years (397 m, P < .01 and 393 m, P = .01). Cardiac MRI results were more varied, with an increase in RV ejection fraction from 29% at baseline to 46% at 2 years (P = .02), but other MRI variables did not improve.

CONCLUSIONS: Ambrisentan monotherapy led to improvements in catheterization, 6MWD, and RV ejection fraction, and shows promise as a long-term treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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