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Musculoskeletal problems in association with cloacal exstrophy.

The records of all thirteen patients for whom a diagnosis of cloacal exstrophy had been recorded in our hospitals were analyzed for evidence of musculoskeletal problems. All thirteen patients had spina bifida, four had congenital scoliosis, two had congenital kyphosis, and three had non-congenital scoliosis. All had a lipomeningocele, and eleven had paralysis of the lower extremities. Hydrocephalus and its associated problems were not found, but tethered-cord syndrome was diagnosed in eleven patients. Persistent diastasis of the symphysis pubis was found in all patients. Abduction and external rotation of the hips were more than normal. Mild dysplasia was seen in six of the twenty-six hips. Deformities of the foot were common, and twelve feet had been operated on for correction. Recurrent equinovarus deformity of the foot was associated with tethered-cord syndrome in two patients.

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