A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome following allogenic bone marrow transplantation

Seonhee Heo, Hye Jung Cho, In-sang Jeon
Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 2010, 27 (1): 59-64
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but distinctive clinical-radiologic entity characterized by headache, seizures, visual disturbance, and altered mental function associated with reversible white matter edema affecting the posterior parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Although PRES is caused by a variety of conditions, acute elevation of blood pressure, fluid retention, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and/or anti-neoplastic agents are the main causes. A few cases of PRES associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children have been reported. Early recognition of PRES and appropriate management are needed to reduce the risk of permanent neurologic disability. The authors report a case of PRES in a girl who received an HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome to emphasize the importance of early recognition and institution of appropriate management of PRES during HSCT.

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