Beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: respective contributions of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to coronary heart disease risk in apparently healthy men and women

Benoit J Arsenault, Jamal S Rana, Erik S G Stroes, Jean-Pierre Després, Prediman K Shah, John J P Kastelein, Nicholas J Wareham, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Kay-Tee Khaw
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2009 December 29, 55 (1): 35-41

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C are still associated with an increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

BACKGROUND: Although LDL-C is considered to be the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, other parameters of the lipoprotein-lipid profile may more closely associated with CHD risk.

METHODS: In the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk prospective population study, 21,448 participants without diabetes or CHD between age 45 and 79 years were followed for 11.0 years. A total of 2,086 participants developed CHD during follow-up.

RESULTS: Among individuals with low LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dl), after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, physical activity, and hormone replacement therapy (in women), those with non-HDL-C >130 mg/dl had a hazard ratio (HR) for future CHD of 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12 to 3.04) when compared with those with non-HDL-C levels <130 mg/dl. In a similar model, individuals with TG levels >150 mg/dl had an HR of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.02 to 2.59) when compared with those with TG levels <150 mg/dl, and individuals with a TC/HDL-C ratio >5 had an HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.22 to 3.93) when compared with those with a TC/HDL-C ratio <5.

CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, independently of their plasma LDL-C levels, participants with high non-HDL-C levels, high TG levels, or with an elevated TC/HDL-C ratio were at increased CHD risk. CHD risk assessment algorithms as well as lipid targets of lipid-lowering trials may also need to consider other easily available parameters such as non-HDL-C.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"