Haemodynamic effects of acute intravenous metoprolol in apical ballooning syndrome with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Takotsubo syndrome, also called apical ballooning syndrome, is a clinical entity characterized by transient hypokinesis, akinesis, or dyskinesis of the left ventricular mid-segments with or without apical involvement, and without obstructive coronary lesions. The contemporary presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet, and acute mitral regurgitation might explain the worsening of the heart failure or the occurrence of cardiogenic shock in some patients with apical ballooning syndrome. The use of beta-blockers should improve the LVOTO gradient by reducing basal hypercontractility, increasing left ventricular filling and size, and reducing heart rate. However, clear evidence of the direct haemodynamic effects of beta-blockers is still lacking. We present a case of apical ballooning syndrome complicated by dynamic LVOTO, treated with metoprolol.
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