D-pinitol attenuates the impaired activities of hepatic key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Selvaraj Sivakumar, Sorimuthu P Subramanian
General Physiology and Biophysics 2009, 28 (3): 233-41
During diabetes mellitus, endogenous hepatic glucose production is increased as a result of impaired activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, which leads to the condition known as hyperglycemia. D-pinitol, a bioactive constituent isolated from soybeans, has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia in experimental diabetes. We therefore designed this study to investigate the effect of oral administration of D-pinitol (50 mg/kg b. w. for 30 days) on the activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate and glycogen metabolism in the liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The efficacy was compared with glyclazide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. Oral administration of D-pinitol to diabetic group of rats showed a marked decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and an increase in plasma insulin and body weight. The activities of the hepatic enzymes such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and hepatic glycogen content were significantly (p < 0.05) increased whereas the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in diabetic rats treated with D-pinitol. The results suggest that alterations in the activities of key metabolic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism could be one of the biochemical rationale by which D-pinitol attenuates the hyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats.

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