Thirty-day outcomes for carotid artery stenting in 6320 patients from 2 prospective, multicenter, high-surgical-risk registries

William A Gray, Seemant Chaturvedi, Patrick Verta
Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions 2009, 2 (3): 159-66

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association has established guidelines for acceptable 30-day death and stroke rates for patients with severe carotid disease undergoing standard-risk carotid endarterectomy: <3% for asymptomatic lesions and <6% for symptomatic lesions. To date, carotid artery stenting has not demonstrated these outcomes in multicenter, prospective assessments of high-surgical-risk patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2 prospective, multicenter (280 US sites, 672 operators), postmarket surveillance studies in high-surgical-risk patients were analyzed: 2145 patients from the Emboshield and Xact Post Approval Carotid Stent Trial (EX) and 4175 patients from the Carotid ACCULINK/ACCUNET Post Approval Trial to Uncover Rare Events (C2). Both studies had pre- and postprocedure neurological evaluation and independent adjudication of neurological events. The overall 30-day death and stroke rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.3% to 5.0%) for EX and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.9% to 4.0%) for C2. In the population comparable with American Heart Association guidelines (<80 years), the combined 30-day death and stroke rate was 5.3% (95% CI, 3.6% to 7.4%) for symptomatic patients and 2.9% (95% CI, 2.4% to 3.4%) for asymptomatic patients, independent of unfavorable risk factors (anatomic or physiologic); in patients >/=80 years, this rate was 10.5% (95% CI, 6.3% to 16.0%) and 4.4% (95% CI, 3.3% to 5.7%), respectively. In subjects with anatomic features unfavorable for surgery, the 30-day death and stroke rates were 1.7% (95% CI, 0.0% to 8.9%) and 2.7% (95% CI, 1.3% to 4.9%) for symptomatic and asymptomatic cohorts, respectively, independent of age.

CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes for carotid artery stenting in nonoctogenarian high-surgical-risk patients have improved since the pivotal Food and Drug Administration approval trials, and have achieved American Heart Association standards in both symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions.

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