Effects of sitagliptin or metformin added to pioglitazone monotherapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Ilaria Ferrari, Pietro D Ragonesi, Fabrizio Querci, Ivano G Franzetti, Gennaro Gadaleta, Leonardina Ciccarelli, Mario N Piccinni, Angela D'Angelo, Arrigo F G Cicero
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2010, 59 (6): 887-95
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the addition of sitagliptin or metformin to pioglitazone monotherapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on body weight, glycemic control, beta-cell function, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state parameters. One hundred fifty-one patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] >7.5%) in therapy with pioglitazone 30 mg/d were enrolled in this study. We randomized patients to take pioglitazone 30 mg plus sitagliptin 100 mg once a day, or pioglitazone 15 mg plus metformin 850 mg twice a day. We evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index, fasting plasma proinsulin (Pr), Pr/FPI ratio, adiponectin, resistin (R), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. A decrease of body weight and body mass index was observed with metformin, but not with sitagliptin, at the end of the study. We observed a comparable significant decrease of HbA(1c), FPG, and PPG and a significant increase of homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index compared with baseline in both groups without any significant differences between the 2 groups. Fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma Pr, Pr/FPI ratio, and HOMA-IR values were decreased in both groups even if the values obtained with metformin were significantly lower than the values obtained with sitagliptin. There were no significant variations of ADN, R, or TNF-alpha with sitagliptin, whereas a significant increase of ADN and a significant decrease of R and TNF-alpha values were recorded with metformin. A significant decrease of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein value was obtained in both groups without any significant differences between the 2 groups. There was a significant correlation between HOMA-IR decrease and ADN increase, and between HOMA-IR decrease and R and TNF-alpha decrease in pioglitazone plus metformin group after the treatment. The addition of both sitagliptin or metformin to pioglitazone gave an improvement of HbA(1c), FPG, and PPG; but metformin led also to a decrease of body weight and to a faster and better improvement of insulin resistance and inflammatory state parameters, even if sitagliptin produced a better protection of beta-cell function.

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