JOURNAL ARTICLE

An extra X or Y chromosome: contrasting the cognitive and motor phenotypes in childhood in boys with 47,XYY syndrome or 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome

Judith L Ross, Martha P D Zeger, Harvey Kushner, Andrew R Zinn, David P Roeltgen
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2009, 15 (4): 309-17
20014371

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to contrast the cognitive phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY (XYY) karyotype and boys with 47,XXY karyotype [Klinefelter syndrome, (KS)], who share an extra copy of the X-Y pseudoautosomal region but differ in their dosage of strictly sex-linked genes.

METHODS: Neuropsychological evaluation of general cognitive ability, language, memory, attention, visual-spatial abilities, visual-motor skills, and motor function.

RESULTS: Study cohort: 21 boys with 47,XYY and 93 boys with 47,XXY (KS), age 4-17 years, and 36 age-matched control boys. Both the XYY and KS groups performed less well, on average, than the controls on tests of general cognitive ability, achievement, language, verbal memory, some aspects of attention, and executive function, and motor function. The boys with XYY on average had more severe and pervasive language impairment, at both simple and complex levels, and the boys with KS on average had greater motor impairment in gross motor function and coordination, especially in running speed and agility.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from these large XYY and KS cohorts have important neurocognitive and educational implications. From the neurocognitive standpoint, the presenting findings afford an opportunity to gain insights into brain development in boys with XYY and those with KS. From the educational standpoint, it is critical that boys with XYY or KS receive appropriate educational interventions that target their specific learning challenges. These findings also provide important information for counseling clinicians and families about these disorders.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
20014371
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"