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Expanding the phenotype of a neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome: a patient with a SPRED1 mutation and orbital manifestations.

A 4-year-old child with no medical history presented for evaluation of a small, palpable nodule near the left inferolateral rim. The lesion had a bluish hue and had been slowly enlarging over the course of several months. MRI of the orbits revealed a heterogenous and infiltrative preseptal and extraconal mass which enhanced with gadolinium, and sphenoid wing dysplasia on the left. A complete ophthalmic and physical examination failed to reveal any other stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). An incisional biopsy of the palpable mass revealed a plexiform neurofibroma. Molecular sequencing of the NF1 and NF2 genes did not reveal causative mutations. Further investigation revealed a loss of function mutation in SPRED1 on chromosome 15. Although loss of function mutations in the SPRED1 gene are known to cause several dermatologic changes associated with the NF1-like phenotype, to our knowledge, this is the first description of a SPRED1 gene mutation resulting in ophthalmic abnormalities.

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