JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gene expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues is related to insulin resistance markers and mediates beneficial effects of physical training

Karen Ruschke, Lauren Fishbein, Arne Dietrich, Nora Klöting, Anke Tönjes, Andreas Oberbach, Mathias Fasshauer, Jost Jenkner, Michael R Schön, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Christos S Mantzoros
European Journal of Endocrinology 2010, 162 (3): 515-23
19966034

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reaching epidemic proportions in Western societies, and they contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) system plays an important role in the regulation of efficient energy utilization and oxidative phosphorylation, both of which are decreased in obesity and insulin resistance.

DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the metabolic parameters and the expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha mRNA using quantitative real-time PCR in omental and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues in an observational study of 153 individuals as well as in SC fat and skeletal muscle in an interventional study of 60 subjects (20 each with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2D) before and after intensive physical training for 4 weeks.

RESULTS: PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha mRNA expression in both fat depots as well as in skeletal muscle is associated with markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression is significantly higher in SC fat than in omental fat, whereas PPARgamma mRNA expression is not significantly different between these fat depots. Skeletal muscle and SC fat PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha mRNA expression increased significantly in response to physical training.

CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha in human adipose tissue is related to markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Increased muscle and adipose tissue PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha expression in response to physical training may mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity.

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