JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas

Pierlorenzo Pallante, Rosa Visone, Carlo Maria Croce, Alfredo Fusco
Endocrine-related Cancer 2010, 17 (1): F91-104
19942715
Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but one of the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system. Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells. Follicular carcinoma is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers. Even though several genetic lesions have been already described in human thyroid cancer, particularly in the papillary histotype, the mechanisms underlying the development of these neoplasias are still far from being completely elucidated. Some years ago, several studies were undertaken to analyze the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in thyroid carcinoma to evaluate a possible role of their deregulation in the process of carcinogenesis. These studies showed an aberrant microRNA expression profile that distinguishes unequivocally among PTC, ATC, and normal thyroid tissue. Here, other than summarizing the current findings on microRNA expression in human thyroid carcinomas, we discuss the mechanisms by which microRNA deregulation may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis, and the possible use of microRNA knowledge in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasms.

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