Validation and normative studies of the Brazilian Portuguese and American versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R)

Daniel Maffasioli Goncalves, C Robert Cloninger
Journal of Affective Disorders 2010, 124 (1): 126-33

BACKGROUND: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was first described in 1993. It was designed to measure the character and temperament dimensions of Cloninger's model of personality using a true-false response format. The revised TCI (TCI-R) uses a five-point-Likert format and has multiple subscales for persistence to improve its reliability. We tested the clinical validity of an original Brazilian-Portuguese translation of the TCI-R.

METHODS: The 595 volunteers completed the BrP version of TCI-R, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS).

RESULTS: The internal consistency was satisfactory for all dimensions (Cronbach alpha coefficients above 0.7). The cumulative variances for temperament and character were 58% and 60%. BAI was positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively with persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness. SWLS was correlated negatively with harm avoidance and positively with self-directedness and cooperativeness. The congruence coefficients between each facet of BrP TCI-R and the US TCI-R original data were 95% or higher (except NS1).

LIMITATIONS: The main limitation of this study is the convenience sampling.

CONCLUSIONS: The BrP version of the TCI-R had good psychometric properties regardless of the cultural and educational backgrounds of subjects. The present study supported the validity of the BrP translation of the TCI-R, which encourages its use in both clinical and general community samples.

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