JOURNAL ARTICLE

Herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish against Aeromonas hydrophila

Ramasamy Harikrishnan, Chellam Balasundaram, Moon-Soo Heo
Fish & Shellfish Immunology 2010, 28 (2): 354-61
19941960
Goldfish, Carassius auratus (47 + or - 3 g, n = 300) were inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with Aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). On the 6th day of post-infection the fishes were divided into i) control, without infection fed with normal diet (C), ii) infected fish, fed with normal diet (IU), and infected fishes treated with different doses of iii) 100 mg kg(-1), iv) 200 mg kg(-1), iv) 400 mg kg(-1) and vi) 800 mg kg(-1) mixed herbal extracts supplementation diets. Hematological and immunological parameters were determined on week 1, 2 and 4. In infected goldfish were fed diets containing 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) of mixed herbal extracts supplementation feeds, the white blood cell (WBC) levels significantly increased (P < 0.05) throughout the experimental trial compared to the control. During the experimental period, the red blood cell (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) level in goldfish significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when fish fed with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) of mixed herbal extracts supplementation feeds while it was restored near control when infected fish fed with 400 or 800 mg kg(-1) of herbal extracts supplementation feeds. On the other hand, the haematocrit (Ht) values decline significantly (P < 0.05) in 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of mixed herbal supplementation feeding groups on weeks 2 and 4 when compared to control group. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values almost significantly differ from the control values. The infected goldfish and treated with 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) of herbal supplementation feeds exhibited significantly decline (P < 0.05) in total protein (TP), glucose (GLU) and cholesterol (CHO) levels on week 1-4 whereas it was restored when infected fish fed with 400 or 800 mg kg(-1) of herbal supplementation feeds on week 4. In comparison to untreated control goldfish, the respiratory burst activity and phagocytic activity of blood cells was significantly enhanced in infected fish feeding with 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) of herbal supplementation feeds compared to the control. On the other hand, infected fish fed with all the doses of mixed herbal supplementation feeds, the lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced throughout the experimental period. This study shows that the infected goldfish treated with 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) of herbal supplementation feeds preceding the challenge with live A. hydrophila had 30% and 25% mortality. However, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) of herbal supplementation feeds treated groups were found the percentage mortality 50% and 45%, respectively. Our results indicate that 400 or 800 mg kg(-1) of mixed herbal supplementation feeds were restored the altered hematological parameters and triggering the innate immune system of goldfish against A. hydrophila.

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