Taiwan cobra phospholipase A2-elicited JNK activation is responsible for autocrine fas-mediated cell death and modulating Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in human leukemia K562 cells

Ku-Chung Chen, Wen-Hsin Liu, Long-Sen Chang
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2010 January 1, 109 (1): 245-54
Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja naja atra venom induced apoptotic death of human leukemia K562 cells. Degradation of procaspases, production of tBid, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bcl-2 degradation, mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and cytochrome c release were observed in PLA(2)-treated cells. Moreover, PLA(2) treatment increased Fas and FasL protein expression. Upon exposure to PLA(2), activation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and JNK (c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase) was found in K562 cells. SB202190 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) pretreatment enhanced cytotoxic effect of PLA(2) and led to prolonged JNK activation, but failed to affect PLA(2)-induced upregulation of Fas and FasL protein expression. Sustained JNK activation aggravated caspase8/mitochondria-dependent death pathway, downregulated Bcl-2 expression and increased mitochondrial translocation of Bax. SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) abolished the cytotoxic effect of PLA(2) and PLA(2)-induced autocrine Fas death pathway. Transfection ASK1 siRNA and overexpression of dominant negative p38alpha MAPK proved that ASK1 pathway was responsible for PLA(2)-induced p38 MAPK and JNK activation and p38alpha MAPK activation suppressed dynamically persistent JNK activation. Downregulation of FADD abolished PLA(2)-induced procaspase-8 degradation and rescued viability of PLA(2)-treated cells. Taken together, our results indicate that JNK-mediated autocrine Fas/FasL apoptotic mechanism and modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins are involved in PLA(2)-induced death of K562 cells.

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