The effects of atrazine on spotted salamander embryos and their symbiotic alga

Heather M Olivier, Brad R Moon
Ecotoxicology 2010, 19 (4): 654-61
Worldwide amphibian declines have been a concern for biologists for the past several decades. The causes of such declines may include habitat loss, invasive species, pathogens, and man-made chemicals. Agricultural herbicides, in particular, are known to interfere with reproduction in amphibians and are likely contributing to population declines. We tested the effects of the herbicide atrazine on developing spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and their symbiotic green alga Oophila amblystomatis. We exposed spotted salamander egg masses to atrazine at concentrations of 0 microg/L (control), 50, 100, 200, and 400 microg/L. Algae were eliminated in all atrazine treatments. Hatching success was significantly lower for atrazine-treated egg masses than for the controls, and was inversely related to atrazine concentration. The highest developmental stage reached by the embryos was significantly lower in the atrazine treatments than in the controls, and was inversely related to atrazine concentration. These results indicate that atrazine exposure affected spotted salamanders both directly by causing pathologies and mortality in embryos and indirectly by eliminating their symbiotic alga.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"