Silicone implant and primary breast ALK1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, fact or fiction?

Shiyong Li, Andrew K Lee
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology 2009, 3 (1): 117-27
The safety of silicone-based implant for mammoplasty has been debated for decades. A series of anecdotal case reports and a recent epidemiological case-control study have suggested a possible association between silicone implant and the development of primary breast ALK1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In this report, we describe an additional case of primary breast ALK1-negative ALCL in the fibrous capsule and cystic fluid of silicone breast implant in a 58 year old woman who underwent breast reconstructive surgery after lumpectomy for her infiltrating breast adenocarcinoma. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, the lymphoma cells may be confused with recurrent infiltrating breast adenocarcinoma or other non-hematolymphoid malignancies. Molecular studies were needed to determine T-lineage differentiation of the malignant lymphoma cells. We will also review the case reports and case series published in the English literature and discuss our current understanding of silicone implant in primary breast ALK1-negative ALCL.

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