The Warrington Recognition Memory Test for words as a measure of response bias: total score and response time cutoffs developed on "real world" credible and noncredible subjects

Michelle S Kim, Kyle B Boone, Tara Victor, Sarah D Marion, Stacy Amano, Maria E Cottingham, Elizabeth A Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists 2010, 25 (1): 60-70
Several studies have examined the usefulness of the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words as a measure to detect suspect effort, although samples have generally been small and/or comprised of simulators rather than "real world" credible and noncredible patients. The current study examined the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words total score and response time of "real world" noncredible patients (as determined by motive to feign, failure on > or =2 independent measures of response bias, low cognitive scores inconsistent with normal ADLs; n = 190) versus credible patients (as determined by no motive to feign, failure of < or =1 measure of response bias; n = 124) derived from an archival database of individuals from the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Outpatient Neuropsychology Service, and the private practice of the second author. Noncredible patients obtained significantly lower total scores and longer times to complete the task. A total correct cutoff of < or =42 was found to have excellent specificity (91.9%) and sensitivity (88.9%), whereas a time cutoff of > or =207'' was associated with 65.5% sensitivity at 90.7% specificity, and when the time cut-score was used in combination with the total score cutoff, an additional 5% of the noncredible participants were captured, raising overall sensitivity to 93.7% (at 87.1% specificity). Thus, the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words, although not originally created for the purposes of measuring suspect effort, appears to be an excellent measure for detecting response bias on neuropsychological testing.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"