Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: short- and medium-term Follow-up

Valentín Fernandez, Gaspar Mestres, Jordi Maeso, José Manuel Domínguez, M Carmen Aloy, Manel Matas
Annals of Vascular Surgery 2010, 24 (2): 160-6

BACKGROUND: Successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with low rates of complications has been referred to in the treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries; however, we still do not know the long-term behavior. In this series, short- and intermediate-term results of TEVAR of traumatic aortic injuries are analyzed.

METHODS: The clinical charts and courses of 20 patients (mean age, 31.8 years; age range, 15-65 years; 14 [70%] men) with traumatic thoracic aortic injuries treated with TEVAR were retrospectively reviewed. Mean delay from trauma to intervention was 15 days (range, 0-180 days).

RESULTS: The initial success rate was 100%, with no deaths or intraoperative leaks, although in 4 (20%) patients, injuries were repaired in the arterial access site. The mean postoperative follow-up was 43.53 months (range, 5.5-108.0 months). Four (20%) patients required reintervention: 2 postoperative revascularizations of the left subclavian artery (20% of the patients in whom the ostium was intentionally occluded) and 2 aortic reinterventions (endovascular treatment of a collapsed stent graft and open repair after thrombosis of another stent graft). All reinterventions were successfully performed and no additional complications were registered during follow-up. Asymptomatic findings related to the stent graft included lack of proximal device-wall apposition in 8 patients (40%), intragraft mural thrombus formation during the first 6 months in 7 patients (35%), and an asymptomatic fracture of the longitudinal reinforcing bar of the stent graft 4 years later in 1 patient (5%).

CONCLUSION: Although not completely exempt of complications, TEVAR provides a reliable method for the treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries with good results in the short- and medium-term follow-up. All complications have been treated successfully. Long-term evolution of lack of proximal device-wall apposition and intragraft mural thrombus formation should be closely monitored to prevent long-term complications.

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