Use of multidetector row CT to evaluate the need for bronchial arterial embolization in hemoptysis patients

Hidenori Mori, Yasushi Ohno, Yusuke Tsuge, Masanori Kawasaki, Fumitaka Ito, Junki Endo, Norihiko Funaguchi, Bu Lin Bai La, Masayuki Kanematsu, Shinya Minatoguchi
Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases 2010, 80 (1): 24-31

BACKGROUND: Bronchial artery (BA) embolization (BAE) is recommended as a minimally invasive therapy for hemoptysis, though some patients recover after only conservative treatment.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to assess the characteristics of BAs using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and identify BAs requiring BAE without BA angiography (BAG).

METHODS: We retrospectively studied 41 patients and classified the visualized BAs into groups based on their BAE and bleeding statuses. Patients presenting with massive hemoptysis requiring emergency BAE were excluded. Patients presenting with persistent hemoptysis that was resistant to conservative treatment received BAE. Radiologists measured BA diameters at the ostium, bronchial bifurcation and pulmonary hilum, and also evaluated the degree of vascularization.

RESULTS: MDCT enabled visualization of 102 ostia and 96 traceable BAs. Among the participating patients, 13 had at least one ectopic origin. We obtained a good correlation between BAG and MDCT diameters (r = 0.709, p < 0.001). The diameters of BAs responsible for bleeding and receiving BAE were apparently larger in each measured segment than those that were not (p < 0.05). Moreover, the diameters of arteries receiving BAE remained largely unchanged from the origin to the hilum and through the mediastinum. BAs with low MDCT scores were significantly less likely to required BAE than those with high scores (p = 0.004), and in multiple logistic regression analysis, ostium diameter and bleeding status were independent predictive factors for BAE.

CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of BAs on MDCT could be useful for identifying the anatomical characteristics of bleeding-related BAs and determining whether BAE is indicated or whether conservative treatment is sufficient.

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