Nasopharyngeal acute phase cytokines in viral upper respiratory infection: impact on acute otitis media in children

Janak A Patel, Sangeeta Nair, Krystal Revai, James Grady, Tasnee Chonmaitree
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2009, 28 (11): 1002-7

BACKGROUND: The role of acute phase cytokines generated in the nasopharynx during viral upper respiratory infection (URI) in subsequent development of acute otitis media (AOM) has not been examined.

METHODS: We studied 326 virus-positive URI episodes in 151 children aged 6-36 months. Nasopharyngeal secretions collected within 1 to 7 days of URI onset were studied for viruses by conventional and molecular techniques, and for concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children were followed up for 28 days to document AOM complication.

RESULTS: IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha concentrations correlated positively with each other (P<0.001). IL-6 and TNFalpha concentrations were higher in males than in females (P=0.01 and 0.02). IL-6 and TNFalpha concentrations were inversely correlated with age (P=0.02 and 0.05). IL-6 concentrations correlated positively with duration of fever (P=0.006) and correlated negatively with the number of days of URI symptoms (P=0.026). Furthermore, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher during adenovirus and influenza virus URIs as compared with enterovirus and rhinovirus URIs (P<0.01). IL-1beta concentrations were higher during URI episodes with AOM than those without AOM (P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: We found IL-6 nasopharyngeal secretions concentrations to be higher with adenovirus and influenza infection, and in children with systemic febrile response during URI. However, IL-1beta was found to play a more important role in the development of AOM after URI. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of acute phase cytokines in virus-induced AOM.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.