De novo renal carcinoma in renal transplant recipients: effect of early treatment

X Tillou, M Demailly, F Hakami, P-F Westeel, F Saint, J Petit
Transplantation Proceedings 2009, 41 (8): 3314-6

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiology, diagnosis, and outcome of de novo renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant recipients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From June 1989 to August 2006, 800 renal transplant recipients were followed up annually by a urologist using abdominal ultrasonography or computed tomography. Renal lesions considered suspect were treated using extended nephrectomy. Incidence, diagnosis, histologic type, treatment, and outcome were analyzed in all patients.

RESULTS: Thirty-three patients underwent nephrectomy because of suspect renal lesions including 22 de novo tumors in 21 native kidneys (renal clear-cell carcinoma in 15 and papillary carcinoma in 7). All tumors were classified as pT1aN0M0. Mean (range) time after diagnosis was 25.6 (2.3-105.5) months. Only 1 patient died, at 8 months after diagnosis. All other patients were alive at follow-up of 34.8 (2.8-113.9) months. Five-year survival was 92%.

CONCLUSION: The increased risk of tumor in renal transplant recipients leads us to propose extended nephrectomy in the case of suspect lesions in the native kidney. In our patients, 65% of patients had malignant lesions. Good prognosis for these localized tumors justified aggressive therapy even though 35% of transplant recipients were tumor-free.

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