Clostridium difficile is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis: A national and tertiary center perspective

Jasmohan S Bajaj, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Muhammad Hafeezullah, Yelena Zadvornova, Alexis Dye, Emily L McGinley, Kia Saeian, Douglas Heuman, Arun J Sanyal, Raymond G Hoffmann
American Journal of Gastroenterology 2010, 105 (1): 106-13

OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is associated with antibiotic use, acid suppression, and hospitalization, all of which occur frequently in cirrhosis. The aim was to define the effect of CDAD on outcomes and identify risk factors for its development in cirrhosis.

METHODS: Case-control studies using the de-identified national (Nationwide Inpatient Sample, NIS) and an identified liver transplant center database of hospitalized cirrhotics with and without CDAD were performed. The NIS 2005 was queried for mortality, charges, and length of stay (LOS) in cirrhotics with/without CDAD. Outcomes of cirrhosis and infections were also analyzed. In the transplant center database, risk factors for CDAD were defined in hospitalized cirrhotics with/without CDAD who were age matched in a 1:2 ratio.

RESULTS: The NIS 2005 included 1,165 cirrhotics with and 82,065 without CDAD. Cirrhotics with CDAD had a significantly higher mortality (13.8% vs. 8.2%, P<0.001), LOS (14.4 days vs. 6.7 days, P<0.001), and charges ($79,351 vs. $35,686, P<0.001) compared with those without CDAD. On multivariate analysis, CDAD was associated with higher mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.85), charges, and LOS despite controlling for cirrhosis complications and infections. In the transplant center database, 54 cirrhotics with and 108 cirrhotics without CDAD were included. Outpatient spontaneous bacterial peritonitis prophylaxis (35% vs. 13%, P=0.01), inpatient antibiotic (63% vs. 35%, P=0.0001), and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (74% vs. 31%, P=0.0001) were significantly higher in those with CDAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhotics with CDAD have a higher mortality, LOS, and charges on the NIS 2005 compared with those without CDAD. Antibiotic and PPI use are risk factors for CDAD development in hospitalized cirrhotics.

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